Nigeria has a total land area of about 923,700 sq.km. Going by the 1991 census figures, this gives a national density of about 96 persons per square km. However, this national average conceals very wide variations in population density in different parts of the country. Indeed, the feature of unevenness in the distribution of the Nigerian population is considered as one of the country's population problems, as the land mass is generally sparsely and very unevenly settled. There are parts of the country with densities of under 50 persons per sq. km, while there are other areas with densities of from 500 to over 1000 persons per sq.km.
As can be observed from the map, the southern part of the country is generally very densely settled with the largest concentrations in the south-east, southwest and the core areas of Kano, Katsina, Sokoto and Zamfara States. The south-eastern part of the country, covering parts of Imo, Abia and particularly Akwa lbom States, experience the highest rural population densities. The obvious implication of high population concentration is population pressure on basic resources resulting in scarcity of farmland, surface water and fuel wood. The high density areas frequently experience land disputes and clashes over boundary claims, and are very vulnerable to the phenomenon of out-migration.