Both Hausa and English are used in official communication. Pidgin English is used by the immgrant population. Other tribal languages are used in homes and especially at cultural meetings. The early settlers were traditional animists whose lives centred round the shrine of Tsumburbura. Today, while pockets of traditional worshippers exist, the population is predominantly Muslim.
Kano Central Mosque
There are some Christians Customary foods are fura da nono, Kunun tsamiya, tuwon dawa, tuwon tsari, and kwadon Zogale. Kano is well known for meat snacks: dambun nama, balangu and tsire. Koroso, a popu lar traditional dance, which has brought national and international laurels to the state, the Fulani , Share and the traditional boxing, dambe, are being promoted by the State's History and Culture Bureau.
Twice each year, at Id El Fitri and Id El I Kabir, the Emir goes out on four consecutive days. On the Sallah day, he goes on foot to the Id ground , but returns to the palace via the central mosque on , horseback where he delivers the traditional sallah address. On the second day, in the morning, he receives traditional greetings (jahi) from the district heads at Kofar Kudu and in the evening he goes out for Hawan Nassarawa, the traditional sallah courtesy call on the governor.
On the fourth day, the Emir visits his traditional house in either Dorayi or Fanisau where discussions are held with the district heads. These events are usually very colourful, as the Emir moves with squads of district heads and others on horse back accompanied with trumpets, drums, gun salutes, et cetera. During sallah, young people may be found dancing in groups in villages or at picnic centres.
Population Structure and Distribution: The state's population in 1991 was 5,632,040. The sex 5 ratio is slightly male skewed (50.7 per cent) due largely to a high proportion of male inmigrants in t Kano metropolis where the difference is as high as 27.0 per cent). In most rural LGAs, the sex composition is female skewed.
However, primary and secondary school enrolments, with myriads of almajiri, suggest a bottom heavy structure. The state has a remarkable concentration of rural population. The gross population density is 270sq. km. ranging from as low as eightytwo in Tudun Wada Doguwa with extensive forest game reserves to 856 in Ungogo and over 8,000 in the ; metropolis. In broad terms, density declines away from the metropolis. Kano metropolis attracts substantial numbers of inmigrants, being the seat of government and centre of industry, commerce and education.
The most important group of rural inmigrants and out migrants have remained women who migrate to marry. Loss of fadama due to dam construction has induced more cin rani movements but destinations are quite local (Mortimore, 1965). Many previous cin rani emigrants are contented with work on the medium and largescale irrigation projects (Falola, 1984/85). Kor'anic scholars and their pupils engage in seasonal movements.
''Kofar Mata'' Dye Pit Established in 1898, Kano
Settlement: Dispersed compounds dominate the inner Kano closedsettled zone. The com pound, gida, fenced with a single entrance, a recep tion hut and sometimes surrounded by farmlands, is subdivided into sections, shiya, each occupied by a close family unit. The larger, old nucleated settle ments are often the district and LGA headquarters.
Some of these were walled, others exhibit careful planning, while most have periodic and sometimes night markets to satisfy quasiurban functions. Some planned villages are consequent upon relo cation arising from major development projects e.g. airports, industrial estates and dam construction.
There are also some model villages provided with basic amenities, which have been created by regrouping of previously scattered settlements. Seven such villages have been completed. Also, 13,390 villages and hamlets have been identified and codified for easy planning of development projects.
Urban and Rural Development: By Edict 15 of 1990, all LGA headquarters were accorded urban centres in the state but Kano, the state capital, is preeminent. Kano metropolis has grown tremendously, especially since the 1970s.
The space is dominated by residential landuse divided ; between the old walled city (Bimi), migrant centres and new layouts. The Kano State Environmental Planning and Protection Agency (KASEPPA) handies granting of building permission, layout and , development control.
In metropolitan Kano, thirty four residential, thirteen commercial and four industrial layouts have been created. Five government housing estates contain 2,242 housing units: 1,256 ' sold as owner occupier, 1,212 rented and 404 mortgaged. In order to enhance the urban environment, roads are constructed through hitherto inaccessible areas of Kano City, accompanied by the demolition of illegal structures, refuse collection and central sewerage collection and treatment. There are several shopping centres springing up along major city roads.
Women's and farmers' cooperatives have been used to channel investment funds to the rural sector. Contrary to the widely held view, women in this predominantly Islamic area are actively involved in rural economic life. Women are trained for nine months to two years at the predominantly rural multipurpose model women centres and classes organised in homes by the Women Affairs Commission.
Several smallscale industries are , now managed by the over 600 registered women groups including: groundnut oil extracting, rice processing, pottery ceramic, corn milling, several leather works etc. Women groups have been acclaimed for excellent performance in agriculture. Private and community participation in the process of rural development have become more remarked. There are 1,040 registered self help