Relief And Drainage: Abia State has a variety of land forms, despite the fact that it is dominated by flat and low-lying land, generally less than 120m above sea-level. The low-lying plain is the inland extension of the coastal plain from the Bight of Benin. The central part of the state is characterised by undulating land with many hills. The highland areas are part of the Enugu - Nsukka - Okigwe cuesta. This area has an average height of between 120m and 180m above sea-level. From Okigwe (Imo State), this escarpment extends in a west-east direction and, on getting to Afikpo (Ebonyi State), veers south-eastwards to Arochukwu where it terminates.
|"Obichi Late Okoro Oji. A shrine connected with the "Long Juju" and slave trade|
There are nine main geological formations from south to north. These include: The Benin formation (or Coastal Plain Sand), the Bende-Ameki Group, the Nkporo Shale Group, the Nsukka formation (Upper Coal Measures), the Igali sandstone (False- bedded Sandstone), the Eze-Azu Shale Group and the Asu River Group. The principal rivers in Abia State are the Imo River and its tributary, the Aba River.
Imo River originates from the northwestern part of the state and flows southwest through Abia and Imo state territories towards the Atlantic Ocean, passing through the southern parts of Ukwa-West and Ukwa-East local government areas. Other important rivers include lgwu, Azurnini Blue River and Kwa lbo River.
There are two seasons in the year, namely: the rainy season and the dry season. The rainy season begins in March and ends in October with a break in August usually referred to as the "lit- tle dry season." The dry season which lasts for four months begins in November. Heavy thunderstorm are characteristic of the onset of the rainy season. The total rainfall decreases from 2200mm in the ie south to 1900mm in the north. The hottest months as are January to March when the mean temperature ts is above 27°C. The relative humidity is usually high throughout the year, reaching a maximum during the rainy season when values above ninety per cent are recorded.
Soils And Vegetation: The soils of Abia State fall within the broad group of ferrallitic soils of the coastal plain sand and escarpment.
National War Museum Building, Umuahia
Other soil types include alluvial soils found along the low ter- race of the Cross River and other rivers. The soils
are not particularly fertile and are prone to much "., leaching because of heavy rainfall. The main eco- logical problems in the state are sheet and gully erosion.
The vegetation in Abia State is ordinarily considered part of tropical rain forest which is the dominant natural vegetation in most parts of southern Nigeria.
The northern part of the State has rich Savannah vegetation of which the bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) is a typical grass species. The economic trees of the rainforest community are extremely numerous in species and varied in sizes, but the oil palm appears to be the most important.