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THE ARROGANT IMMATURITY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Failed projection in travel Ugly Tales Of Abuja Ghettos HOME OF RICHES AND POWES A final word to the cabal in Kaduna How Seme Customs enforced vehicle importation ban Football Prediction in Nigeria and Betting As a Source of Employment Returnee Graduates Disturb As Employers Reject Foreign Degrees The World Through The Lens Of Alternative History The Case Of The Three Abba Kyari Donald Trump's Toxic Masculinity How Donald Trump turned Ted Cruz into a laughingstock Joey's Monday Musings: Is Fela Kuti still relevant in this digital age of Nigerian music? Cancellation Of Post Utme, A Blessing To Our Educational System Moms and dads! Porn shall not be our norm Are most Nigerian artists original? BROKEN RIB (AGAINST DIVORCE) How can Nigeria deal with its recession? 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Dakuku Adolphus Peterside April 2011 Polls: Princewill Commends Rivers’s People and Prof. Jega RIVERS GUBER 2011: AMAECHI, SEKIBO OR OMEHIA: WHO IS EASY CHOICE FOR THE RIVERS STATE PEOPLE? Nigeria: Is there any hope for the poorest of the poor? PPA Winds up Door to Door Electoral Campaign Exercise; as Princewill Urges Voters to Convert Overwhelming Support to Physical Votes on Election Dates Hon. Chief Peterside Dakuku and His Triumphant Entry into Andoni Kingdom Hon. Chief Peterside Dakuku and His Triumphant Entry into Andoni Kingdom 2011: THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY TO BE REINVIGORATED AS GOV AMAECHI UNLEASHES HIS FIRST ELEVEN ON THE HAPLESS OPPOSITION IN RIVERS STATE 2011: THE PRINCIPLE OF “ANYA-NELI”, CHIEF BARR. EZEBUNWO NYESOM WIKE AND THE POLITICAL FUTURE OF RIVERS STATE – AN OVERVIEW OF AN INSIDER Have you lost your important files and folders? $5,000,000. interswitch ATM Card ARE AFRICANS RELIGIOUS PEOPLE OR FETISH INHABITANTS? DO THEY HAVE A UNIFYING RELIGION AND CULTURE? TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL RESPONSE! part 4 Opobians in Diaspora Drum Support for Hon. Dakuku Peterside ARE AFRICANS RELIGIOUS PEOPLE OR FETISH INHABITANTS? DO THEY HAVE A UNIFYING RELIGION AND CULTURE? TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL RESPONSE! Part 3 Port Harcourt rally stampede is heartbreaking - Princewill ARE AFRICANS RELIGIOUS PEOPLE OR FETISH INHABITANTS? DO THEY HAVE A UNIFYING RELIGION AND CULTURE? TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL RESPONSE! part 2 ARE AFRICANS RELIGIOUS PEOPLE OR FETISH INHABITANTS? DO THEY HAVE A UNIFYING RELIGION AND CULTURE? TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL RESPONSE! part 1 Hon. Dakuku Peterside: The House of Representative Candidate and His Political Movement Nigeria: The Ban on Commercial Motorcyclists Princewill Pays Homage to his Father, Urges Kalabari Natives to Vote for Amaechi Dr. Dawari George: Truth about the House of Representatives candidate It's in you; oh Citizen. Niger/Delta: Militancy or Criminality a Genuine Cause for Agitation? Niger/Delta: Militancy or Criminality a Genuine Cause for Agitation? Inec Urged To Extend Registration Days 2011 Election: The Odd Favors Goodluck Jonathan Over Nuhu Ribadu Praise For Dr Dalhatu Tafida From A Global Group Goodluck Jonathan Triumphs In Pdp Party Primary Online Marketing APGA, WHICH WAY? Atiku Abubakar’s Desperation and His Politics of Entitlement Igbos and the 2011 Elections Goodluck Jonathan Global Campaign Team disappointed over Choice of Atiku as Consensus Candidate Internet usage by country: Nigeria has more per capita internet users than India And They Lived Happily Everafter.... Poll: Jonathan Could Beat Atiku in 2011 PDP Presidential Primaries Goodluck Jonathan Campaign Team Concentrate on Jonathan's Voter Registration Drive U.S. Interests in Nigeria’s Financial Reform Success Global Diaspora CampaignTeam Lauds Dr Dalhatu Tafida contributions towards Dr Goodluck Jonathan 2011 Dr Goodluck Jonathan’s Use of Social Media Campaign WHAT SHOULD CHRISTIAN DO ABOUT THE PLIGHT OF THE POOL IN OUR SOCIETY AND IN OTHER PART OF THE WORLD ARE HOMOSEXUAL CHRISTIANITY GENUINE: SHOULD WE ACCEPT THEM TO CHURCH? WHAT IS CHRISTIAN VIEW ABOUT ABORTION IS THERE ANY HARM IN SEX BEFORE MARRIAGE? IS IT A DIRECTIVE FROM GOD THAT THE CHURCH SHOULD BE SILENT ON POLITICAL AFFIARS? WHAT IS CHRISTIANITY STAND ON RACIAL PREJUDICEAND SECURITY REVENGE? THINKING THROUGH THE REALITY OF MORAL ISSUES IN OUR GENERATION Pornography Use in a Marriage The Question of Love, Sex in Marriage COMPOSITION OF ADULTERY THE MENACE OF SECRET SOCIETIES IN NIGERIA Nigeria @ 50: What happened to the ‘Giant of Africa’? Happy Birthday Nigeria….. CELESTIAL CHURCH OF CHRIST-IMOLE KRISTI DE LATI BA WA GBE NINU IJO MIMO 2011: WHITHER YOUTH CANDIDATES A well fed slave and a hungry free man: who is better the field were glory does not stay (Poem) Beauty and Persnality What I wish I had known before coming to the USA. Hannibal was black In support of Zoning system of government A MESSAGE OF HOPE A MWA SHOULD WE BELIEVE IN GOD ? Undelete data from faulty data storage media LIFE AFTER DIVORCE Kpako Husband CONFIRMED!!! HOW I MADE $250 IN 24HOURS WITH MY LIBERTY RESERVE ACCOUNT IN DEFENCE OKADA MEN PROSTITUTION A SOCIAL MENACE ONE MILLION YOUTH MARCH AT KEBBI FOR WHAT? Why Nigeria Crashed Out of The World Cup failed marriages Open letter to Alhaji Sani Yerima Nurturing Effective and Elective Democracy in Nigeria Death of the zoning system: A muted grief The Niger Delta Question IBB AT YOUR SERVICE EDMARK INTERNATIONAL HAS CHANGED NIGERIANS FINANCIALLY AN ATRIBUTE TO OUR DEAR PERSIDENT tribute to our dear president How ThisDay Newspapers 'Scandalized' President Obama's Nigerian Nominee 2011: What if it is Babangida again? THY GOOD SHERPERD- OLUSHOAGUTAN RERE where to keep your problem This Graveyard called Nigeria The Paedophiles in our midst State of the Nation and a Credible 2011 Elections: Matters Arising Yar’Adua-Jonathan Political Muddle: What Lies Ahead? Dear Bishop Oyedepo Gospel of Wickedness – The Hypocrisy and Falsehood of Helen Ukpabio – Part 2. Gospel of Wickedness – The Hypocrisy and Falsehood of Helen Ukpabio – Part 1. Nigeria Mass Media - The Fourth Estate of Graft LIFE AND TESTIMONY Emenogu, world number four, eyes WBC crown A SEALED PRAYER Life after death Responding to Mr Dodo's letter The Stampede for N4million naira on namywedding,com Illogicality and Absurdities: Open letter to Turai Yar’adua EARTHQUAKE REVIEF MISSION Emmanuel TV Haiti Earthquake Relief Team RELAX… AND ENJOY YOUR WINE. A VITAL TOOLS TO THE WORLD BEHOLD! TB JOSHUA’S NEW MYSTERY LADY The dangers of heterodoxy – Open letter to Evangelist Helen Ukpabio T.B JOSHUA IS NOT BUILDING IN GHANA NIGERIA LEADERSHIP CRISES: THE PAUL DIKE OPTION TB JOSHUA IS GREECE'S BIGGEST THREAT IN SA WORLD CUP – GREEK NATIONAL NEWSPAPER A later to my brothers and sisters! HAITI and NIGERIA: Case studies in failure of Human Management of natural resources. The End of Plenty: Nigeria’s “Malthusian Curse” A Letter to the America President from a Nigerian Why I Will Not Support Prof. Chukwuma Soludo Barack Obama: Man of the Year 2009 Labyrinth of Leadership: Nigeria’s Peculiar Mess (penkelemesi) studying abroad is not a child`s play Nigeria, Niger Delta Violence and the Biafra Connection: A Political Discourse By Chris Onyema The Parody of Nigerian Education and the Alternative Search for Foreign Certificate: Whither the Hope of a Better Future? (Part I) GREAT MEN AND HISTOTRY 2011: Ibrahim Shekarau as President What we must tell the President Nigeria: when is the relieve coming? (2) THE AFRICA CHALLENGE...A Message to the President addressed to the Nigerian Youths at the UNITED NATIONS on Aug 7th 2009 Arabic Inscription or Hausa Verbiage: Between Manipulative Interpretations and Subjective Impulse The Many Faces of Helen Ukpabio Nigeria: When is the relieve coming? The Intrigues of Naming: A Dissectional Response to the ‘Boko Haram’ Butchery The Intrigues of Naming: A Dissectional Response to the ‘Boko Haram’ Butchery Curtailing the excesses of Evangelist Helen Ukpabio Fraud Alert! INTERSWITCH SCAM EMAILS ON THE LOOSE, BEWARE! Who Is TB Joshua's Mentor? THE TRIBAL EMANCIPATION OF NDI IGBO FROM NORTHERN DOMINATION; part 3 Tony Patrick a.k.a. TP-Rhymes Selfless Service Niger Delta Crisis: Nigeria Loses N6, 264 Trillion! MOTHER'S DAY: THE MYTH BEHIND THIS DAY! Withdrawal of Andy Uba's Supreme Court Case Anambra State Political Issues: This Is My Stand (Part II) KA SISE LATI LE RE IJOBA ORUN --- OMO IJO MIMO---CELESTIAL CHURCH OF CHRIST Anambra State Political Issues: This Is My Stand Dividends Of Unemployment Mental Colonialism RE: REBRANDING NIGERIA IMAGE PROJECT; WE ALL MUST SUPPORT AND CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS A TRIBAL EMANCIPATION OF NDI IGBO FROM NORTHERN DOMINATION-Part 2 Anambra State and The One-Term Governor Syndrome (Part II) i miss her sorry baby Make Quick Money with less Stress VISION 2020 AND NIGERIA'S ECONOMY, THE WAY FORWARD Satellite Internet Access Lamit Company launches a new network solution for improving the internet connection A-Z of Cyber Fraudsters & Preventive Tips We dont have ambbasador in China but a foolish goat GOODNESS IN MAN. WORDS WRITTEN IN BLOOD THE LOVE BETWEEN OBJ AND ATIKU Some Articles deserve not to be published. Obama: The President With Many Firsts Our Ambassador in china is very stupid What can be done about being Nigerian? TOWARDS A TRIBAL ENMACIPATION OF NDI IGBO FROM NORTHERN DOMINATION- Part 1 Burden Of Proof In Election Petitions We Know The Way Their Racism, Our Tribalism LEGITIMATE AND ILLEGITIMATE WORRY YOU ARE TIMELESS TO ME. Why I Want McCain To Win How Race Colors American Presidential Election Nigeria, afer the Beijing games. Do we ever have a Government? Help Nigerians in China out b4 too late. BIG TROUBLE FOR NIGERIANSIN CHINA Nigeria@48 Wake-up Nigeria 1ST NIGERIAN GERMAN SECURITY CONFERENCE 2008 ABUJA BETWEEN PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FATALLY WOUNDED PATIENTS THE SOCIAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE FOREIGN NATIONALS USING NIGERIAN PASSPORTS MODERN MAN AND SCIENTIFIC SOPHISTICATION IN THE THIRD MILLENNIUM "ONWA ASATO' OR "ILO MUO" FESTIVAL IN NRI MARITAL TRAGEDIES AMONG NIGERIANS IN DIASPORA (PART I) war aganist women HOW OBAMA CAN WIN IN NOVEMBER TAX EVASSION IN LAGOS? 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YES, NIGERIAN WRITINGS TODAY ARE RUDDERLESS Professor Tony Afejuku of the Department of English, University of Benin, a poet, critic and an activist, once said in an interview with a Nigerian newspaper (Vanguard), that Nigerian writings today are rudderless. NIGERIAN PRESIDENT'S CHIEF PUBLICIST DEVISES CREDIBILITY RUBBISHING SCHEME FATHERHOOD: HISTORICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE The Obasanjo Years of Locust (1999 To 2007) is our Collective Guilt UPSURGE ON ONLINE PUBLISHING IN NIGERIA PROFILE AND POETRY OF COMRADE CHIDI ANTHONY OPARA Niger Delta Conference!!!! 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BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY(Do You Have The Courge To succeed) TRIBUTE TO CYPRIAN EKWENSI DWELLING IN THE SECRET PLACE OF THE LORD ABOUT EJIKE OGBONNAYA WE NEED THIS KIND OF PERSON IN THIS WORLD BREAKING NEWS! Kebbi Gubernatorial Election Nullified Says FRCN, Kaduna THERE IS A BATTLE CALLED LIFE "Succeeding successfully" Equal opportunity Bald Men Need Natural Hair Care Products Too! How to save your hair and your valuable time removing Fusion, Braids, Weaves, Hair Extensions and Dreadlocks! Laugh your ribs out. Call this comedian STOP AUTHORITY STEALING GROUP PLANS EPIC FILM ON AWO, TWENTY YEARS AFTER HIS DEATH ''PILLAR''OF CORRUPTION! 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Knowledge Management PRESIDENT YAR'ADUA NEEDS TO DEAL-WITH INTRIQUES AND POWER-PLAY WE NEED A CHANGE IN OUR SOCIETY TO STOP THE TERIFYING PAINS OF OUR FUTURE MOTHERS IN NIGERIA AND ALL OVER AFRICA (''CIRCUMCISION'') INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GROWTH IN ETHIOPIA 7 ways to choose an effective career IS ABORTION REALLY MURDER? EFCC ACTIONS China/Africa relation, a new hide and seek. YAR'ADUA NEEDS TO BE CAREFUL OF GENERAL OBASANJO!! AMEN FOUNDATION CATARACT SURGERIES FOR LAGOS STATE Housa man and police officer The godfathers red eyes 30 days in power The go-slow president The cop and the chop Something to ponder Never again I will miss Obasanjo THE ROOT OF REALITY: IN SUPPORT OF MILITANCY Ka sowo po, ka sowo po, Pelu ife mimo King Ogbidi Okojie of Uromi OBASANJO IS STILL RULING NIGERIA NIGERIA WILL BE GREAT AGAIN THE ANATOMY'S SECRET PRINCIPLES OF SUCCESS Nigerias Post 2007 Elections: A Time for Healing Process and National Reconciliation Majors Offered at Rochville University Rochville University Nigeria as Nigerians are the happiest people in the world 19,May 2007.Fear of safety Port Harcourt Nigeria:Bari-arakpalap Esan Youth Rebirth Movement Appeal for the Release of Hostages! Ghana Beckons! 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CGG DRAMATIC IRONIES home away from home A TERRIBLE BEAUTY THE NIGER_DELTA: A CRADLE OF VIOLENCE MEND vs. POLICE ONSLAUGHT In Defense Of The Outcast One Dishonesty in Census: what's The Upper Limit? IN DEFENCE OF SANGUINARY GODS The relevance of emotional intelligence in business Why the nice men hurts everybody Malleable pornography is a poison to Youth morals Bringing back life into the family Preventing violent behaviour in children DEVELOPING AN APPEALING LOOK Superior should not count people but count on people CELESTIAL MEMBERS ARE U READY TO MEET JESUS ----IF SO--THIS IS WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR U CELESTIAL MEMBERS TO DO-LISTEN TO HIM-GOD ALMIGHTY THE BRUTAL KILLING,TORTURE AND ARREST OF BIAFRAINS WORD OF THE LORD FOR CELESTIAL MEMBER TO LEARN FROM ABOUT THE LORD MARGINALISATIO OF IGBO RACE AND THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SOVEREIGN STATE OF BIAFRA. What If You And Your Friend Love The Same Person? Tell Your Partner Why You Love Them. Love - Can You Change Your Partner? 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Role Models: Who and Why are you imitating? Overcoming Shyness All about Bliss and why its not a good Idea Deregulation of morality No Visible Alternative Leadership for 2007 - Nigerians in the Diaspora Declares Politics in High Places: Aberant of the Mainstream Opportunity Cost of $125 Million PTDF Fund: Forgone Conclusion Sanctity of Democratic Choice retrenchment NIGERIA LEFT nigerian students' movement who corrupted the public service Nigerian Independence Day Celebration in The Hague. ABC Health Guide for Nigerians Travelling to the U.K DININE TUNR ARUND Ghana Beckons!! thank you ohafia-agba A day with Adewale Ayuba Governor Idris has donewell but people still lay complains War Against Terror - UK Prime Minister, Tony Blair Speaks on Terrorism in Niger Delta NIGERIANS NEED A KEGITE LEADER AS THE NEXT NIGERIA PRESIDENT KEGITES MEMBERS DECLARED SHAME Nigerian Universities In Shambles INFERNO IN ASO VILLA FRIEND' S FAMILY DECONGESTING THE MIND FEAR OF SUCCESS RUMOURS- THE OFFICE VIRUS PAYING ATTENTION TO THE OTHER SIDE WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH THESE PUBLIC OFFICERS Introducing LBE HelpDesk the serenity of the niger delta; a review commissioner's sack; why hon. Ambaowei must stay endless tears of niger delta : poems post-UME screening: matters arising Bayelsa as an educational brand Quality E-Books and Softwares with Master Resale Rights the nigerian girl making waves in the uk for her continent! Quality E-Books and Softwares with Master Resale Rights The Future of Immigration in the West ACHIEVERS ARE DREAMERS celestial church of christ pillarand the ground of truth--1tim,3-14-15 Adeyinka Makinde, author of Dick Tiger, interviewed on Global Talk Radio A superlative performance- our heroine on the world stage A day with Olusesan Ekisola pioneer GM, Raypower THE KALEIDOSCOPE OF PRINCE TONYE PRINCEWILL Ma sise lo, ma se wa isimi COOPERATING WITH COLONIAL COOPERATION. NA WA FOR YABA MARKET. Difference between Online Education VS. Traditional Education Divergent Perspectives on the Niger Delta Question Black Prime Minister Not In My Lifetime Declares UK First Black Female Parliamentarian, Diane Abbott Private Soldier Lectures Nigerian Commander-in-Chief UK Prime Minister speaks out on terrorism in Africa Addressing Nigeria's Economic Problems and the Islamist Terrorist Threat Obasanjo pls we need your attention. Lets Make Nigeria Great THE BAD EGGS OF THE NIGERIAN FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION RE: Obasanjo: Nigerians ll Decide My Successor we are one in christ-celestial member--LOVE- IS THE WORD AND WORSHIP IS THE WAY;- THE CYBER INVESTIGATOR PART 1 CHIEF AUDU OGBE IN RETROSPECT Interview Transcript of appearance on 'Garvey's Children' Boxing: Rousing the Nigerian Giant THE APATHY OF FREE MEN AND THE CONSPIRACY OF SILENCE THE NIGER-DELTA: A CRADLE OF VIOLENCE Interview Transcript of appearance on 'Just About Books' Remembering Rex Lawson THIRD TERM: THE COLOSSAL FAILURE OF A BAD IDEA; AN INVESTIGATION NEEDS TO BE CONDUCTED TO SEE WHO GOT WHAT AND WHY. THE NEXT GOVERNMENT HAS A FIDUCIARY DUTY TO CONDUCT AND INVESTIGATION INTO EFFORTS TO ABROGATE OUR CONSTITUTION; LET THE CHIP FALL WHEREEVER discuss the development of fishey in nigeral Tetuila thrills America CALL FOR GENDER EQUALITIES!!! GOD BLESS NNAMANI Beyond Third Term: The untold story... EMOTIONS AND LOVE AFFAIRS cry of help THE NEW AFRICAN ORDER - The times, they are a-changing We must Stop the Government The Iran Question and Nigeria DISCUSS IN DETAILS THE HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIA FROM THE COLONIAL ERA TO THE PRESENT DAY, POINTING OUT CLEARLY ALL AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMES. The worrisome Lagos-Ibadan traffic Hope for Niger Delta Conference on CURBING YOUTH RESTIVENESS IN THE NIGER DELTA Held on the 29th April 2006 in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. I want your comments The Ambush of Ambition SAY NO TO OBJ THIRD TERM BID internet secrets to money making LET UNITE AND WORSHIP THE TRUE GOD TOGETHER MEMBERS OF (C.C.C.)WORLDWIDE THE NIGERIA POLICE: VICTORS OR VILLAINS THIRD TERM SYNDROME THE IMMINENT DEATH OF A NATION The Messiah illusions of 'scramble democrats' Beyond elections: Niger Delta in perspective Ngige, welcome home from great conquest AFTER THE BATTLE WHAT NEXT Wake up Nigeria The Delta Murder At Dawn Jelili Omotola (1941-2006) In Amsterdam, Nigerian deportee help up our flight for one hour THE WORLD'S NUMBER 1 BLACK BOOK! NIGER DELTA/SLAVE COAST = GARDEN OF EDEN= BLACK PROGRESS? African Union Defined THE DOUBLE VICTIMS OF DEPRAVITY Constitutional Review Obasanjo sliding into a pariah? A Dream of Nigeria: Critical Published Essays 2002 To 2005 Ali Farka Toure (1939-2006) AFRICA - AMERICA DOUBLE STANDARD RELATIONSHIP The Witch of Web-design, the Young Humanitarian and the Scientific-poetic Soul Conference Annoucement!!!!!! Third Term Dilemma A heart for HIV orphans Niger Delta: The Need for Immediate and Urgent International Intervention Ritual Taste In Nigeria. THE NIGER DELTA: A TERRIBLE BEAUTY A TIME TO KILL CRAZY MORALITIES THIRD TERM AGENDA??? THIRD -TERM AGENDA: ANOTHER MANIFESTATION OF THE ELITES' RECURRING CONSPIRACY Do Sumthing! International THE SCANDALOUS ADVOCATES FOR THIRED TERM THE SCANDALOUS ADVOCATES FOR TERM LATELY I HAVE BEEN STARING AT THE MIRROR MOURINHO SHOULD LEARN HOW TO ACCEPT DEFEAT Speech by M. Dominique de Villepin, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to the United Nations Security Council, New York 19.03.2003 NIGERIA AND RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE. Where is our toil? (a poem) Sorrowful tale (A poem) The beauty and lure of cultism A bad man with good intentions Waltz into darkness Diatribe ans counter diatribe Nigeria: The holocaust agenda The principle of 'chop chop' politics Project Nostradamus The imminent death of a nation The Contenders: Illusions of genuine betrayal Adieu Nigeria Nigeria: Evaluation of the year 2005 Why do we hate him? The Politics of Higher Education UNIONIZING THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE: THAT THE QUESTION BE NOW PUT So Tafa Balogun is a free man? Words of Wisdom CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT, NOT SOVEREIGN NATIONAL CONFERENCE, IS PATHWAY TO A REFORMED POLITY What has happened to America's Jesus? Insights of Accreditation Six Things Africans Living Abroad Must Note! BEKO IS DEAD: Ace activist succumbs to death after recent battle with ill-health: Soyinka Sad. 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Written by: USA


Adaptation will continue to fall short of significant ideas if people within a culture continue to deny the relevance of extra cultural engrafting. In today’s cultural review, or in today’s religious pluralism, there is probably no concept so widely discussed or so dearly beloved by cultural anthropologists than the word adaptation. Yet, this beloved concept is the most widely misunderstood in religious circles or in cultural settings. Adaptation is what traditional African religion and culture need in this scientific age. Most liturgists and some devout cultural strategists have suggested that Africa should take a pride in claiming it as characteristics of her cultural growth and enrichment. Despite this positive suggestion, most of us have given little thought or attention to what we mean by cultural adaptation.  As a result Cultural adaptation ends up being used to describe virtually everything needed to be accepted or insignificant values needed not to be eliminated at all cost.  To give a head start in this issue, let me say a few things about what adaptation is not. Adaptation is not culture per se; Adaptation is not religion as people may think; Adaptation is not a total imitation or association. Adaptation is not a complete assimilation of any values of any kind. Rather, adaptation is a matter of cultural appreciation, cultural borrowing for remaking of lifestyle and habits.  Adaptation as cultural evolutionary process is that by which societies modify their habits or practices to fit into the objective way of life. This subjective definition is an antidote to the view that cultural evolution or accommodation is just like genetic evolution. This is why cultural adaptation has played a crucial role in human evolution.  Humans can live in a wider range of environments than other primates because culture allows the relatively rapid accumulation of better strategies for exploiting local environment compared to genetic inheritance (Moran et al, 2009). This is why cultural transmission often times lead to relatively rapid, cumulative adaptation. Populations of people connected over time by social learning can accumulate the solutions to problems that no individual could do on its own.

One of the greatest accomplishments of Tooby and Cosmides (1992: p. 104) is the explanation of adaptation.  They define adaptation as, “a reliably developing structure in the organism, which, because it meshes with the recurrent structure of the world, causes the solution to an adaptive problem.” This definition and many other analysis signifies that cultural Adaptation irrespective of how it is explicated explores how creative ideas are packaged and nationalized to meet local taste (Moran et al, 2009). There are other elements in African culture that should serve as basis for a positive adaptation: a living awareness of community (foundation for an awareness of the church and people), worship of ancestors (which could be transferred to the saints or our departed relatives), a flair for chieftains, filial piety, and a sense of gratitude. Pope John Paul the 11 after his groundbreaking visit to several African countries including Nigeria remarked joyfully, “African culture is a splendid substratum which a-waits the incarnation of Christianity (See L’Ossavatore, 1982). In any linguistics or in any classical literature, substratum is often understood as a form of language that influences an intrusive language that supplants it; a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact. To balance this contact or to harmonize this equation, or even to put things in equilibrium, thus providing opportunity for incarnation, Christianity must find radical meaning in people’s life and culture that would require them to adapt and incarnate with velocity so that they will have no course to consider or to reconsider the beauty in their mythology and worldview. When people in a culture find meaning in their worldview, then borrowing values from the outside would become flat and uninteresting. Therefore, any missionary dogma or authoritarian religion that places revelation, God or creed before African substratum (human needs or experiences of a people in a culture) is doing a disservice to the human species (See the Humanist, 1973). Given this fact therefore, the approval resolution to this problem of adaptation is to distant with caution the imposing cultural categories from the suffering mode of a particular culture. This form of adaptation or effort is one out of the many ways to give enculturation a breeding space without even appearing to fall victim to it. No matter how cultural or poignant adaptation may seem, it is not enough to make a people sound solid, and if cultural anthropologists and church Historians who harmonize church and culture think it is, somebody has to tell them otherwise. The trick here is satisfying religious and cultural requirements immanent in African cosmology while escaping the confines of imported categories. Writing about African worldview which functions as cultural mode tends to be disaster in adaptation or a suicide in religious incarnation. On the other hand, writing about the impact of cultural romance refreshes my memories of how “naked” we were like “Adam” before we were told to cover ourselves in the Garden of Eden. Therefore, let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for adaptation by drinking from the cup of distorted assimilation. Let us not embrace anything because we want to be like others. We must not allow cultural or religious adaptation to degenerate into accepting anything that is universal. For African traditional religion to become a universal religion like Christianity, it must come out from its present obscurantism and seek to analyze the Gospel of Christ in the light of African people’s spiritual experience, so that the Gospel of Christ will not be seen as inseparable reality from the humiliated condition that this guest culture imprinted on the indigenous faith. Again, the act of shining out would bestow on Africans the necessary tool or power to break the chains of missionary religious imprint. And for African traditional religion to receive universal character like other world religions there is need for enculturation acculturation and the incarnation of the Gospel message into African belief system that was hitherto termed fetish. Traditional African worshippers must therefore learn to use indigenous African languages as medium for African celebration, proclamation, and prophecy. Enculturation would be effective language-wise, if African liturgical concepts and languages are expressed in traditional African modes and categories. African forms of worship must be celebrated in an African way. Services must be celebrated to have African flavor or coloration. Traditional African drummers must usher in their priests/pastors vested in native African wrappers. The book of the Gospel must accompany the native flutists and drummers. During offertory and the presentation of gifts, African crops and products from mother earth such as: cocoyam, coconuts, maize and oranges must take the place of bread and wine of Christian Eucharistic worship. Fanfare, cannon shots, songs and dance as evidenced in “Kwanza” must take the place of Eucharistic consecration bell. African priests/pastors must use idioms, proverbs and native stories during liturgical celebrations or during traditional church festivals. They are to use these modes instead of the abstract theological exegesis in the name of homilies that often times convey no moral lesson on human life. We know that stories and idioms bring about a graphic appreciation of a message in any local liturgy. It seems to me that when these caveats are put into action, African traditional religion would flower and go beyond its present obscurantism into a broad rehabilitation in its practices and beliefs systems. It will convince the missionaries to approach our local faith with sympathy rather than with arrogance. It will awaken the missionaries to gasp empathically the faith damage they have done to African traditional religion and culture. Also, the missionaries will have the opportunity to realize that African culture and faith were not entirely populated with spirits, charms, magic and divinations. When these are realized, traditional African religion will glow and stand out with vigor as universal religion comparable to Christian worship.


Post Reflection


        It seems to me that traditional African religion is today at the crossroad. It must, as always, try to remain true to its own values and principles. In the face of today’s world religions (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Confucianism), traditional African religion must recognize the diversity that is part of the richness of humanity and gather for itself something that will lead her into the unity of truths. But there is a twofold danger here: One, of narrowly identifying the unique truths that make up African traditional faith with expression of native cultures; the other, of destroying foreign religious and cultural imposition without the multiplicity of them. These twofold dangers seem to me that it would lead Africa to some wrong intersection, a dead end or a middle of nowhere where they would find it difficult or indecisive to either turn right or make a left signal. If you ask some traditional title holders in Africa about their opinion about Islam or Christianity, they will express in the same ambivalence that it led them to the middle of nowhere. It was Ikenga Metuh (1987) who refers to Horton’s description of the Christianity brought to Africa as the Enlightenment Christianity. This definition was born after Ikenga found himself in a confused state of mind trying to balance the pro and cons of Western Christianity as it is related to African faith and cosmology. He continued that Enlightenment Christianity which the missionaries brought on the shores of Africa soil left much to be desires. This brand of Christianity pioneered by the Irish, French and the British was concerned with Francophone, Irish and British Ideals. Their values which were at the root of Western mannerism was a highly reductionism view of African values and customs. Always, it is difficult for Africans to fill into strange or straight jacket that seems very uncomfortable. Always, it is difficult for the missionaries themselves to fit into a square peg as the case maybe. To fit into a straight jacket is to make one a round peg in a square hole. Paulo Mar Gregorios, (1987), President of the world council of churches for Asia, appears to sum up the whole dilemma of fitting into straight jacket when he says “the chariot of human development has gained momentum but seems to be running amuck without character.” In the same ambivalence, Gregoris goes on to say that:

“the environmental crises, the economic crises, the crises of justice, the crises of faith, the monetary crises, the crises of militarism…all these are symptoms that humanity has not become what it has to be, but also that it is on the wrong track.”

I therefore refuse to accept the idea that what Africa need is enlightenment Christianity. Besides adapting to the needs of the people and culture, there are some cogent questions that require relevant feedback here! How, then, could traditional African thought and wisdom embrace authentic human values and at the same time construct a universally applicable interpretation of Christianity without falling on the wrong track? How could traditional African religion find equality with Christianity and other world religions without first trying to prove a point of similarity, or without a feeling of inferiority complex? What then could be done to initiate a lasting and penetrating dialogue that will establish the fact that neither one nor the other is superior or inferior before the maker of all things? To ask these radical questions are basically the same as to ask how could there be a variety of authentic traditional African faith in God. These questions make it seem to me that the revelation of God to Moses has been expressed in Western tongues, “I AM WHO I AM.” And to express this revelation in traditional African tongue is nothing less but adaptation, or religious incarnation. If one sees this as a problem just as I do, then there would never be other suitable danger or indecisive intersection of identifying the revealed truths of Christian religion with terminologies of traditional African wisdom in which they are expressed radically. We must therefore remain open to all valid faith (Western or traditional values) for the truth that both can discover and be integrated into a unity of truths in the light of the unchanging revealed truths. If Christianity was faced with the problem of transposing revelation from Hebrew to the Greek language, then traditional African faith would altogether face similar but tormenting exercise of reinterpreting reveled truth from English to Igbo language. Often times, language differences spin our mind narrowly to identify the unique truths or the different coloration that revelation takes. Often, it leads us to hear weary sounds of the firecracker or the boom bang from enemies next door.  Most often it causes us to see things and hear voices that do not exist. All these seem to me that revelation takes off on a different annotation according to its expression in diverse languages. According to Jean Danielou SJ (1962) revelation was traditionally expressed in Hebrew and Greek languages. A good example here is the expression, “God is spirit.” The Hebrew word ruach (spirit) evokes the image of a storm, of an irresistible force. But this same word was translated into Greek by the word pneuma, which denotes a very subtle material and thus symbolizes immateriality.  These two cultural ways of expressions employ a rich variety of rhetorical strategies and effects, even while expressing spirituality of the God-head.

If Africans had developed advanced writing system like the Meyans (AD, 250), or creative discuss like Ahiajioke lectures early in time, our orature and culture would have busted forth in a flourishing civilization. We may ask here, how did the Mayans come to such point of glorious departure that made them what they are that caused the Irish not to give them callous remarks as given to Africa? The answers lie in a fascinating tale. It was told that the Mayans used their writing system to record important historical events, carving their glyphs in stories or recording them in a bark-paper known as a codex (Beck et al, 2003). Other books that narrated Mayans history and customs do not exist today. These books were carefully written down by Mayan people themselves after the arrival of the Spanish. But after the British and the Irish came, there was total darkness in Africa and as a result, our orature went into coma in the graveyard. Therefore, it would be impractical as well as imprudent to set Africans against the high-way of divinely inspired Christianity. Indeed, such imposition might be tantamount to liturgical suicides or schizophrenic worship. The reason is because Roman liturgy was typically Mediterranean cult which indeed did not suffer from the same willful defeat as compared to many elements of primitive, pre-Christian African cultures.

The idea of “larger Ears” with regard to libation is a bit like the door Kate Winslet holds onto at the end of Titanic episode: It was not the greatest; it may not be appreciated by other cultures, and Leonardo Dicaprio still died in the long run but at least she survived in the long last. African values may not be great; but her culture must survive even while they are not appreciated by others. This is one way we can strike a chord of rhythm or a tune of appropriation while pursuing cultural optimism and religious anxieties of our time. Therefore, the true test of a religion or enduring affirmation of a culture is not how it fits to suit outside evaluation, or how much a religious or cultural practice is castigated. We know that some first-class religion gives in to offense even when they don’t jealous outsiders like Africans. We know other popular culture don’t give in to African values or regard African cosmology and religion as faith and culture of the inner caucus. We have read with sympathy about the malignant treatment and attitude traditional African religion receives because of her commitment to some cultural values and customs expedient to them. We have read with disappointment how African worships and beliefs are met with unprecedented confrontation by other popular religions. Christianity as we know looks with scorn when Africans pour libation to their ancestors. Christianity looks with piety when an individual out of no fault of his is born from the Osu caste. All these happen even when mother Theresa of Calcutta is acclaimed a devout ancestor of the Christian faith. It happens even when Aaron, Elijah and Abraham are acclaimed as theocratic ancestors of Jewish religion. It happens even when Mohammed is acknowledged as the man who had gone before the Muslim world. It happens when the Asian world continues to acclaim Confucius as the ancestor of Confucius religion. But when it happens to African people, it becomes something to be discussed in ecumenical council. These controversies will continue to break grounds until all religion had the opportunity to “build in” a universal cultural mode or private worldview. There are questions that need to be asked here. To what extent has traditional African religion modify libation to posses’ Christian coloration? To what extent has Christianity developed larger ears to believe that our ancestors could be saints in heaven? To what extent should one who pours libation drift away from communion with those who have gone before them? These are theological questions that find meaning in enculturation and adaptation. These inquiries are neither incapacitating nor are they offensive. Rather, they are ‘religio-cultural’ inquiries founded on the solid rock of contemporary Christianity. Let no one therefore think that modernizations of such inquiries are adaptations moving on a wrong intersection. Let no one say I am off from my conservative Christian beliefs. The very word “adapt” implies that the evangelized people provide something of their own. As a result Luykx (1962) further notes: “missionaries ought to respect the indigenous cultural values that their converts posses and express in the social strata to which they belong, insofar as these institutions and customs are not obviously opposed to faith or morals.” This statement is logical and true in every respect. Using Isaac Newton famous remark in this case, we could say that “If (Luykx) have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” Even the greatest cultural Anthropologists or the top-notch comparative religionists know that cultural or religious scheme of things are two factors that faces humanity. They know better like midgets standing on the shoulders of vast pyramids of African culture and religion.

        As a result, lack of cultural respect have resulted in negative attitude which has fortunately yielded to the more positive approach laid down by Pius X11: “when the church invites a people to elevate themselves through the guidance of the Christian religion to a higher human and cultural form, she does not do so in the manner of one who ruthlessly cuts down and destroys a flourishing forest. On the contrary, she initiates like the gardener who grafts a shoot of superior quality onto wild trees in order to make them produce one day a more savory fruits.” This is the more reason why we need to see changes in adaptation, enculturation and acculturation precisely because all religious doctrines are hard to compromise and difficult to pin down. Believers and nonbelievers; Christians and agnostics; Jews and Gentiles alike must develop a romantic interest on how a culture that claims to be deeply spiritual or piously religious would have to deal with religious impossibilities or cultural irregularities. It would be amusing or caricaturic if traditional African faith surrenders by a fear of religious or cultural values because, as near or distant as we would drag this pedagogy, she would still demonstrate to outsides that she has no deficits nor bankruptcy of any sort that would compel her to grudgingly abandon libation.

Let me conclude this pedagogical response with subjective opinion from Elechi Amadi (1982): “We should not throw overboard our cherished social graces, no matter what the pressures of modern living might be… Life is real more meaningful, when we interact very closely with other human beings. Philosophers who argue that reality does not exist are not mad; they merely emphasize the fact that we have to persuade ourselves continually that we are real and that the outside world is real also.  Linking hands with another human being provides that persuasion in a way that nothing else does.” The fundamental question that challenges us is whether opinion in this reflective discourse is adaptive or Eurocentric. Positive adaptation should not mean the loss of African traditional beliefs, worships or values. And to boldly illustrate what we mean, Luykx’s analogy is irresistible: “the initiation rites of certain African tribes resemble closely the initiation rites of early Christianity.” He further argues that in the administration of Baptism, which ordinarily follows a rite designed only for infants, we (Christians) have lost the opportunity to Christianize one of the most precious heritages of the religious culture of Africa.” As a result, Christianity has stigmatized as magic what is no more than natural cult and a practical religious attitude towards God, whose presence is, felt everywhere.” Let us accept the fact that Africans desire to express their feelings to the higher meaning of things by symbolism, rituals or making living contact with the dead (libation is not magic per se, but a purely human impulse to the spirits). Let us put on our thinking cap on these adaptation issues and try to be slow to throw overboard African orature and cultural values. I know that when adaptation is prioritized, the world will no longer talk of anything but African religion. The world will speak less of populated spirits but enduring spirit. The world will come to say, there came a time in human history and in the faith destiny of a people when we said they were worshipping idol gods and engaging in unnecessary respect for the dead while they were simply remembering their past relationship while they were alive.



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